D3.1 – Simulated operating conditions of demonstrators

Work Package 3 (WP3) is dedicated to the development of comprehensive documentation vital for designing a safe and effective hydrogen (H₂) and oxygen (O₂) supply system, specifically taylored for the HyInHeat project demonstrators. This system involves a distribution network that transports H₂ and O₂ from their production or storage sites to the final usage point, which is the burner in the furnace. In the HyInHeat demonstrations, all participants will use H₂ in a compressed gas form, typically transported at high pressures of approximately 200 bars in tube trailers or cylinders. The O₂ supply, on the other hand, will be in a liquid state, kept in cryogenic tanks and then converted to gas for use in the burner through an ambient evaporator located near the tank. Both H₂ and O₂ will then be delivered to the burner at the necessary operating conditions, passing through a series of pipes and valves.


The HyInHeat project integrates H2 as fuel for high temperature heating processes in energy-intensive industries, specifically targeting the aluminum and steel sector. The transition to H2 fuel involves significant challenges, such as the need to redesign the supply infrastructure, burners, furnaces, and the heating process itself to ensure efficient utilization of Hs as fuel.

This deliverable encompasses the Task 3.1 and Task 3.2 of the Work Package 3 (WP3), which is dedicated to designing a safe and efficient H2 and O2 infrastructure. The Task 3.1 involves defining the on and off-design operating conditions for all the demonstrators, while the task 3.2 is regarding the steady-state simulations of H2 and O2 infrastructure from the point of supply to the point of utilization under defined operating conditions. The outcome of these tasks aims to provide an overview of the sizing of major equipment within H2 and O2 infrastructure and the simulations at different operating conditions, facilitating the subsequent detailed design for the demonstrators in WP5 and WP6.

Objectives and subtasks

The primary objective of this report is to furnish a comprehensive overview of the results derived from process simulations pertaining to the H2 and O2 supply infrastructure, extending from the point of production or storage to the point of utilization. The simulations are meticulously conducted for each demonstrator using Aspen Plus, considering the distinctive operating conditions of each. The findings encapsulated in this report delve into various facets of the supply infrastructure, encompassing:

  • Pipeline Sizing: The determination of the nominal pipeline size required for transporting H2 and O2 inside the plant
  • Flow Velocities: Determination of flow velocities within the piping network to ensure optimal transport without compromising safety or efficiency
  • Pressure Drop Simulation: An examination of pressure-drop within the pipelines under different operating conditions considering a hypothetical pipeline length
  • Valves Selection: The selection of number of pressure reduction stages to get the desired pressures and selection of appropriate valves and their flow characteristic curves suitable for different operating conditions
  • Valves Operation: Simulation of valves opening at various operating conditions during operation.

The comprehensive insights presented in this report are instrumental for the design of the H2 and O2 supply infrastructure, providing valuable guidance for selecting pipeline sizes and the control valves for each demonstrator to meet the operating conditions of the furnace.


    Gianluca Valenti, Camilla N. Bonacina, and Umar Farooq | Politecnico di Milano

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